Basic training

A platoon of Luftwaffe conscripts, wearing fatigue uniforms, are drilled in the field during their basic training.

The Versailles Treaty stipulated that Germany couldn’t have an army larger than 115,000 men, the navy included. The treaty forbade Germany to have heavy artillery, airplanes and tanks. The Reichswehr was a professional army, forming a cadre which became the backbone of the future Wehrmacht. After the Nazis came to power, the limitations of the Versailles Treaty were ignored, and the Wehrmacht expanded rapidly. Compulsory military service was reintroduced in 1935. A conscript served for two years, and only a few limited categories (e.g. married men) were discharged after one year’s service.

The conscripts had usually been members of the Hitlerjugend, were they had been drilled in marching and fieldcraft, as well as having served for six months in the Reichsarbeitsdienst (National Labor service), resulting in fit young men used to life in the field and in barracks. All of them went through the same training, which included the following for the Heer (Army; there were some variations for the Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine): eight to twelve weeks of basic training, learning to use the Kar98k rifle, and possibly also the pistol and handgrenade. Training in the basics of combat, defense of positions, and marching, as well as guard duty and protection against chemical agents.

There were also theoretical classes and sports education. When the basic training was completed, the soldiers were trained for their future positions, like machinegunners or artillery or tank crews. This was supplemented with training in other specialist skills, like driving, signals, reconnaisance, etc. The soldiers were trained to function in increasingly larger units, culminating in the annual autumn field manoeuver. This could go on for two to four weeks, and usually by the end of the first and second year of service, respectively.

The conscripts in the German Army didn’t receive training that differed greatly from that of other nations, but there were a few differences. Soldiers were trained to assume the duties of the rank directly above them, which meant that a unit that lost its commanding officer wouldn’t be leaderless. German doctrine also stressed Auftragstaktik, were NCOs and officers were trained to solve situations with the resources assigned them, and where personal initiative was encouraged, it being said that it was more important to do something which might turn out to not be optimal, than to wait for orders while letting the initiative pass to the enemy.

The recruits were trained in replacement batallions directly connected to their future regiments, which meant that they knew which units they would serve in, and that they would do it together with comrades from basic training. This was in sharp contrast to the US Army system, where replacements were trained back in the States, then split up and shipped overseas, ending up in units they had no prior connection with, resulting in poor unit cohesion and an unnecessarily high rate of casulties among the replacements. Still, the German replacements were often in need of additional training upon arrival to their frontline units, and this was conducted (if possible) behind the front under the supervision of experienced NCOs.

As the war progressed and the losses mounted, the conscripts received shorter training, which affected the quality of the soldiers as well as their life expectancy. By 1945, the manpower reserves were exhausted, and together with fuel and matériel shortages, the collapse of the Wehrmacht was inevitable.

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